Weight Management for You and Your Car!

Weight-transfer-pic Weight Management for You and Your Car!

Congratulations! You’ve just been promoted to manager. In this case, if you’re driving a race car or road car, you’re now a weight manager. Every single road car and race car have one thing in common – tire contact patches. Cars can sit still, accelerate, corner and brake. Sometimes there will be multiple combinations of the above. The only thing connecting that car to the track are the four little rubber tire contact patches about the size of your hand. 

Some vehicles are designed to have a “perfect” 50/50 weight distribution at rest. Other cars are designed to have more weight on the front and others more weight on the rear. No matter which set-up belongs to your car, all of those weights will vary when the vehicle is in motion. The laws of physics apply to all equally. If you accelerate, you’ll transfer weight to the rear. If you decelerate, you’ll transfer weight to the front. Of course cornering will transfer weight side-to-side. The bottom line with all of this weight transfer is that the tire contact patch will vary depending upon the vehicle dynamics. 

As a driver, it’s up to you to understand and compensate via throttle, brake and steering inputs to maximize how transferring weight affects the contact patch. The more you understand what’s happening beneath you, the better equipped you are to look forward down the track and cut your lap times down. In a road car situation, for example driving a VIP in a limousine, it’s critical to make the weight transfer as smooth as possible. You don’t want your client getting car sick due to unexpected and rough driving.

Picture a bathtub full of water. Your goal is to drive that bathtub without spilling any water. This technique takes lots of practice. Throttle and brakes are not on/off switches if you’re trying to be smooth. Yanking on the steering wheel suddenly will not allow the car to “take a set” before you complete the movement. When this happens, the tires are overloaded and can’t react quick enough to provide you with the grip you want.

ABS and vehicle stability programs are in place because the driver has “overdriven” the amount of grip the tires can provide. Often times it’s because the driver wasn’t smooth and deliberate in managing the weight on the tires. Threshold braking will typically stop a vehicle quicker than ABS. The reason being is that the driver is using the tire contact patches to their maximum capability. As soon as you go past the threshold you’ve now overloaded the contact patches.

So the next time you’re on the street or track, work on being smooth and managing the weight over your tires. Your VIP or stopwatch will thank you for it!

 

By Larry Mason

Copyright © 2021 Larry Mason

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RaceSchool.com Podcast Colton Herta Interview

Colton Herta Turn 9

Fresh off of his win at WeatherTech Raceway Laguna Seca, Colton Herta shares his insights heading into the Acura Grand Prix of Long Beach. His confidence was well founded as he won the race!

Colton Herta waves to the fans before the start of the Acura Grand Prix of Long Beach. He might as well have been waving goodbye to the other 27 competitors as he stormed his way from 14th to 1st!

Herta pushing hard through Turn 9 extracting all the speed from his Andretti Autosport Dallara Honda.

Herta’s rear wing is becoming a common sight to his competitors!

It wasn’t exactly a drive through the park for Herta. He started 14th and had contact with his teammate early on exiting the hairpin. However, he certainly made it look like a nice Sunday drive.

 

All photos and interview by Larry Mason.

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2021 Acura Grand Prix of Long Beach Review

Photo by Larry Mason Josef Newgarden leads Helio Castroneves, Felix Rosenqvist and Romain Grosjean down Shoreline drive at the start of the 46th Annual Acura Grand Prix of Long Beach on their way to Turn One on the preferred inside line while Scott Dixon, Simon Pagenaud and a trailing James Hinchcliffe are hoping to make the outer line work into Turn 1.

The season finale started off sunny and warm for the first couple of days, but Sunday dawned cloudy, cool and stayed that way for the race. Colton Herta, fresh off his win one week ago at Laguna Seca was quickest in every practice session and the Sunday warm-up. He just missed the cut in qualifying and had to start 14th. The championship leader, Alex Palou, qualified 10th while his next closest rival in the points, Pato O’Ward, was penalized during qualifying for improving his time when a yellow flag flew for Will Power (who got sideways in Turn 9 and then pancaked the wall driver’s left on the exit). O’Ward was not happy since some other drivers also improved their times but didn’t lose their fastest laps. Josef Newgarden showed his intent on winning the race and championship by winning the pole position on Saturday.

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Will Power gets sideways big time in Turn 9 in qualifying right before he “pancakes” the wall with his left rear on the exit.

        The race started cleanly into Turn 1 (which is somewhat unusual for Long Beach) but it didn’t take long for Ed Jones to try an unlikely pass of James Hinchcliffe into the hairpin. He got inside Hinch but managed to punt and spin O’Ward out of the way. O’Ward was able to continue but rolled to a stop some laps later with what appeared to be a broken half-shaft or CV joint. 

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Team Penske’s Josef Newgarden flies over the curbing in Turn 9 on his way to pole position! Photo:Larry Mason

         Newgarden led for the first stint with Scott Dixon close behind. With different pit strategies, Helio Castroneves led the next stint followed closely by Graham Rahal. In the meantime, Colton Herta, who had climbed his right front tire over the back of his teammate Ryan Hunter-Reay’s left rear tire carved his way through the field even though to go straight his hand position was turning right.

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Colton Herta leads Josef Newgarden and Scott Dixon after last pit stop on his way to Victory Lane. Note that Herta is on primary “Blacks” while Newgarden and Dixon are on the alternate Firestone “Reds.” Photo: Larry Mason

        Simon Pagenaud, Felix Rosenqvist and Hinchcliffe all ran strongly in the Top 10 early, but the guy making methodical progress was Alex Palou. At the end of the day it was Herta on top followed by Newgarden and Dixon with Palou in fourth. A great day for Ganassi racing as Dixon was champ last year and the Astor Cup trophy stays with the team this year with Palou. By way of O’Ward’s problems, Newgarden vaulted to second in the championship and O’Ward dropped to third in the standings.

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Josef Newgarden, Colton Herta and Scott Dixon hold their trophies high in Victory Circle! Photo: Larry Mason

 

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Alex Palou raises the Astor Challenge Cup Champion’s trophy and relishes the moment in IndyCar history! Photo: Larry Mason

        In the IMSA WeatherTech SportsCar Championship race on Saturday, Cadillac brought home the win with Felipe Nasr and Pipo Derani in the DPi category. Continuing with the General Motors success, Tommy Milner and Nick Tandy finished first for Corvette Racing in the GTLM category. Rounding out the winners in the GTD category were Bryan Sellers and Madison Snow in their Lamborghini Huracan GT3 Evo.

 

Cadillac DPi T11

The Whelen Engineering Racing Cadillac DPi of Pipo Derani and Felipe Nasr takes a tight line around the world famous hairpin turn en route to victory in the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship event on Saturday afternoon. Photo: Larry Mason

        All-in-all a great race weekend and it won’t be long until the Acura Grand Prix of Long Beach returns on April 8-10, 2022. Don’t miss it!

 

By Larry Mason

Copyright © 2021 Larry Mason

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2021 Acura Grand Prix of Long Beach Preview

Photo by Larry Mason

        For the first time ever, the Acura Grand Prix of Long Beach will be the season finale of the NTT IndyCar Series Championship. With the prior two races happening on the West Coast in Portland and WeatherTech Raceway Laguna Seca, the vast majority of teams based in Indianapolis have not been home for about 3 weeks. Will that provide an opportunity for crews or drivers to make a mistake when the pressure is at its highest? We’ll know by the end of the weekend.

        Most of the teams have deep knowledge of set-up data for Long Beach as this track has been a staple for these teams since 1984, however this is the first time here with the new aeroscreen. Typically you’ll find the first 22 cars separated by less than a second in qualifying! Are there favorites to win coming into this weekend? Scott Dixon, Will Power, Helio Castroneves, Alexander Rossi, Simon Pagenaud, James Hinchcliffe, Ryan Hunter-Reay, Sebastian Bourdais and Takuma Sato have all won here before with Rossi the winner of the last two in a row. That’s about a third of the field entered here listed as previous winners. Alex Palou hasn’t raced here before, but he hadn’t raced at Portland either and earned the pole position and the win. Pato O’Ward has been fast everywhere and has experience here as has Colton Herta who just beat everyone last weekend at Laguna Seca. Conor Daly and Ed Jones have won in Indy Lights at Long Beach so there’s no shortage of experience here. It’s going to be a three-way battle for the title with Palou the odds on favorite. O’Ward and Josef Newgarden are still mathematically in it.

        The concrete walls are unforgiving so the drivers must have a car that “rotates” easily and is nimble to navigate their way through the tight corners. The car must also be supple enough in the suspension to be able to absorb the bumps and curbing to be able to “float” over the rough stuff and put the power down when rocketing off the turns. 

        If you’re going there to watch the race in person, I suggest you bring good walking shoes and walk around the entire circuit to see the drivers fight for grip and speed in the different sections of the track. You’ll see quick hands behind the wheel as the rear tires lose grip accelerating off of the corners. You’ll also see the drivers “throw” the cars into the corners letting the scrub of the front tires assist them in slowing down as they push hard looking for every fraction of a second. Bring a camera for some nice “pan” shots that will capture the speed and beauty of these land-based missiles without having a chain link fence visible in your shot. Also bring plenty of money for souvenirs and a wide variety of great track food.

By Larry Mason

Copyright © 2021 Larry Mason

Photo by Larry Mason

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Fitness Focus—Nobody Likes a Pain in the Neck!

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      Are race car drivers athletes? You bet! Anyone who’s spent some time behind the wheel on the racetrack can certainly tell you that you’ll be worn out at the end of a long day. Elevated heart rate, sweat rate, arm pump and more all contribute to fatigue. In this installment, we’ll focus on the neck muscles and the beating they take on the race track.

    In physical terms, the average head and helmet weigh about 15 pounds. If your car can generate 1 G of cornering force that means that you’re experiencing that same amount of weight pushing on the side of your head. There are plenty of street cars sold today that can generate that kind of force. As you move into race cars with racing-slick tires, cornering forces shoot up. Add wing and downforce and now the forces jump even higher. But wait there’s more. Add in some banking to those corners and you have an incredible strain that no driver can withstand over a long time. To make it more challenging, when you do have a car with significant downforce, those cars are also very stiffly sprung. Driving over bumps in the middle of corners jolt the neck and generate peak loads of neck strain. Current Indy cars can exceed 5 Gs sustained at oval tracks. That’s the equivalent of laying on your side and having a 75 pound person standing on your head!

     How do the drivers train for this? Fortunately there are machines in the gym to do this. Forward and backward movements prepare the neck for braking and acceleration forces while side-to-sid training is for the turns. Some machines use weighted plates while others use a shock absorber set up. Additionally, a personal trainer can hold one end of a neck harness and pull in different directions while the driver is working to withstand those forces. Furthermore, the trainer can add in vibrational shock to simulate the bumps in the corners. There are also secondary surroundig muscles that come into play however a well-planned workout routine will address those to help the driver withstand the abuse.

     There’s no substitute for actually driving, however that would cost thousands of dollars per day. Some drivers own go-karts and can pound laps all day for a much lower cost and that can certainly help. If you’re planning on taking up racing, prepare a bit first with some isometric exercises at home.

     After all, nobody likes a pain in the neck!

 

Copyright © 2021 Larry Mason

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Back To School Track Day @ Big Willow

Photo by Larry Mason

     It was a great day on Saturday, September 4, 2021 when Fast Lane Racing School hosted a track day for former students, friends and family. Also included were racers from the Sports Car Club of America’s Cal Club region and from the Vintage Auto Racing Association. All those present got together to spend time pounding laps around the “Fastest Road in the West” – Willow Springs International Raceway. There were three run groups that comprised beginner/intermediate, advanced and an open wheel group that rotated every 20 minutes for their on-track sessions during the day. In between sessions, Fast Lane instructors were there to coach and encourage the participants in their quest for speed around the track. 

93Lola WIRPhoto by Larry Mason

      It certainly wasn’t your typical track day as the variety of cars was extensive combining high performance vehicles and open-wheel formula cars and open cockpit sports racing machines. Additionally, it also marked the debut of the Fast Lane Racing School Indy Lights race car on track. The Buick-powered 93 Lola chassis weighs about 1400 pounds and puts out approximately 425 HP! The straightaways get real short with a car like this! Just think, you could be driving this fantastic race car at a future Fast Lane school! 

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     The FSE LA group came out with their beautifully presented Formula 4 race cars and spent the day exciting the onlookers with such cool and fast race cars. There were numerous high performance and exotic cars on track including Ferrari, McLaren, BMW, Porsche and Lamborghini along with American muscle cars like Mustang, Corvette and even a Cobra Daytona coupe. Along with a couple of Fast Lane Pace Cars and Scion FRS Pro/Celebrity cars from the Grand Prix of Long Beach, everyone was able to get behind the wheel even if you didn’t drive a stick shift.

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     The morning started off with registration where everyone was treated to a free T-shirt commemorating the day, a lunch ticket, wristband and sticker denoting the run group. A driver’s meeting in front of the cafeteria followed going over procedures, flags and safety information. A free lunch was included in the price of admission and featured track day favorites like hot dogs and hamburgers, along with a trio of salads – potato, regular and fruit. Apple and peach cobbler for dessert made for some full bellies. A cooler filled with water and soft drinks helped wash everything down.

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       The next Fast Lane Track Day is scheduled for October 31st on the “Streets of Willow” track just behind the big track. If it’s anything like the first one, this will definitely be a treat and not a trick. We look forward to seeing you there! For more information contact Fast Lane today!

 

By Larry Mason

Copyright © 2021 Larry Mason

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What's My Line, Part II

What's My Line, Part II

     In part one; we looked at the “racing line” in the textbook design of a long straight followed by a 90 degree corner followed by another long straight. We looked at how the theoretical and geometric “lines” are similar. In part two, we’ll get into corner combinations and more.
     “Don’t use the brakes, they only slow you down!” While that statement is true, on a closed road course or on the street, it’s not realistic. The first phase of a corner is the actual braking zone. For beginners in road racing, new students are often encouraged to get all of their braking done in a straight line so that they can focus on the turn-in, apex and track-out points in a smooth and controlled manner. However, when you advance your driving technique, trail braking (or staying on the brakes as you turn in) gives the front end tires more “bite” or grip leading to better initial handling into the turn. Simultaneously, this forward weight transfer helps to lighten the rear of the car which then helps “rotate” the car into the corner thereby lessening steering input. So far so good. The balance of releasing the brake, coasting and re-applying the throttle while the wheels are still turned is all about good hand/eye coordination as well as the seat-of-the-pants feel.
     The theory of getting on the gas as soon as possible and going to full throttle as soon as possible is the same in any corner that leads onto a long straight. What you don’t want to do is get on the gas and then have to lift off and then re-apply. The time and momentum lost during that dance will be more than if you had just waited a bit longer to go full throttle or perhaps squeezed on the gas pedal a bit more smoothly (not an on/off switch) to sustain that acceleration.
     As we combine this with corner combinations, we need to look at which corners to “give up” in order to gain the maximum amount of speed for the rest of the lap. For example, if you have two 90 degree corners in succession (e.g. left then right) and the second corner is followed by a long straight, you’ll want to apex the first corner very late in order to take a better line through the second and be able to come off of that corner with maximum acceleration as soon as possible. The amount of time lost by not taking the textbook line through the first corner will be more than made up by the extra speed you’ll gain by coming off of the second corner better.
     How do you know which corners to prioritize for the best line? Start with the ones that lead onto the longest straights. Also, look at the highest speed corners as a tenth of a second gained at high speed is much more distance traveled than a tenth of a second at low speed.
In part three, we’ll look at more corner types and how rain affects the line.

 

By Larry Mason

Copyright © 2021 Larry Mason

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What's My Line?

Whats My Line

   One of the most fundamental aspects of safe and fast driving is making sure that you’re driving on the “proper line.” There are theoretical and geometrical lines to take through corners on the road and turns on the race track. Which is the best one for you? If you have two identical radius 90 degree corners, is the line the same through each one? Not necessarily. This is where the theory gets complicated just as quick as the geometry.

  The “line” is made up of a curve that includes multiple points of reference. In fact, before you even start turning in, there’s usually a braking point and zone before you get to the “turn in” point. After the turn in point you get to the apex, and from there you exit at the “track out” point. By connecting the dots in a smooth and wide radius, this allows the driver to lessen the steering input. This allows for more mid-corner speed which ultimately leads to a lower lap time.

  If you have an X long straightaway followed by another X long straightaway, with a 90 degree corner in the middle, the geometrical apex of the corner and the largest radius might be very close to the theoretical best line through the corner. However, it also depends upon what kind of car you’re driving and where you’re driving it. If it’s a high-horsepower car, you might want to move that apex point further away (later in the corner) from the geometric point.

  What are the results of hitting your apex early or late? If the corner is increasing radius, an early apex is okay. If it’s a “textbook” 90 degree or a decreasing radius corner, the results of an early apex can be severe. Once you’ve turned into an apex at speed, there’s very little correction that can be made if you’re not hitting it within a few inches. If you apex early, you will run out of room, or roadway position, at the exit. This typically brings up two responses – the first being that you lift off of the throttle because you’re carrying too much speed. The second being that you turn the steering wheel more to avoid driving off the outside edge of the road. Both of those actions combined can create a TTO, or Trailing Throttle Oversteer. The result is that at this point you can fly off the road surface backwards, or if you’re racing on a grand prix street course, you can hit the concrete barrier.

  If in contrast you apex late, you will leave excessive room on the roadway position at the track out point. It’s safer, and also slower. It’s also a great way to start to learn a track or an unfamiliar mountain road.

  In Part II, we’ll take a look at turn combinations and other aspects of driving the line.

By Larry Mason

Copyright © 2021 Larry Mason

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Real Estate Disputes in Racing

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     It goes without saying that racers are a competitive bunch. There can be some great camaraderie and rivalries on and off the track. The nice thing about racing is that it’s not subjective in the fact that the driver that crosses the finish line first is the winner. There is a sage old saying in this sport, “To finish first, you must first finish.” Sometimes that doesn’t happen because of “real estate” disputes. In other words, two (or more) drivers are going for the same piece of real estate (usually the corners) at the same time. Whose corner is it? How far alongside do you need to be to claim it? What sacrifices in racing line whether blocking (defensive line) or squeezing (forcing the other car into an unfavorable place make the difference into who demands that the corner is theirs?

     Hey, if it was all cut and dry there would be no controversy, hard feelings or polar opposite differences of opinion. In most racing organizations it is up to the overtaking driver to make a safe pass. However, that doesn’t take responsibility away from the driver (getting passed) to make sure he or she gives the other driver racing room. This is where it gets complicated. Technically one could give another driver enough room (barely and totally off the racing line) but that typically doesn’t lead to pleasant outcomes. As long as two cars/drivers are charging into the same corner at the same time, chances are only one of them is going to come out the better of it. For a perfect example of this, just do a video search for the “Hamilton Verstappen Crash.” At the time of this writing there were more than 3 million views of this Formula One video.

     If you’re on the receiving end of that, you and your team will not be happy. If you’re on the “giving” end of that, you won’t find anything wrong with what you did. This is the typical scenario.

     The SCCA (Sports Car Club of America) GCR (general competition rules), has been recently updated to include Appendix P which is six pages strictly focused on passing. It clearly states and shows with drawings how to stay out of trouble, how to figure out who is to blame for contact and how likely a certain move will lead to success or failure. On paper, that’s all good, but when the action is taking place at high speed with only milliseconds to make decisions, real estate disputes are going to happen. So in the case of Hamilton vs. Verstappen, whose fault was it? Sometimes it can be both. What do you think in this case? 

Copyright © 2021 Larry Mason

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Heart Rate Training for Motorsports Part II

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In the last blog, we discussed the basics of how the monitors work and how you can use them in your race car to track where your heart rate goes during a race. Today, we’ll take a closer look at training zones and actual heart rate data.

Once you’ve found your maximum heart rate, you can then start looking at training zones with zone 1 being the easiest and zone 5 the hardest. The chart below shows the different zones graphically as a percentage of your maximum heart rate.

fullsizeoutput 7                    Heart rate training zones courtesy of Polar

 

Taking a look at my HR data from a previous race (below), you can see that the heart rate spikes and falls with different points in time. From sitting on the grid, it’s relatively calm, but then jumps up for the warm-up laps. When the green flag drops, the HR spikes up again and stays elevated until a full course caution comes out where it drops again. At the re-start, my HR jumps up again and averages about 150 bpm during the green flag laps. Right before the checkered flag my HR peaks at 168 bpm where I’m battling for a podium position. After the checkered flag you can see the HR plummet as the race is over.

 

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  For the majority of the time, I’m racing in the “Hard” zone or zone 4. This means that my cardiovascular exercise routine outside the car should also be focused at this intensity. There is a popular type of training these days known as HIIT, or High Intensity Interval Training. This is where you train in zone 5 and then drop down to zones 1 or 2 to recover and keep repeating for the duration of your workout. Keep in mind that this type of training isn’t for everyone, but in some cases this could be a valuable way to simulate the spikes of green flag versus caution flag racing and conditions your body to be able to accept the higher heart rates without too much fatigue.

  The bottom line of measuring and training with heart rate is to have the physical stamina to withstand the rigors of racing. This way your brain is still focused on racing and not on how tired and out of breath you are!

 

Note: Before beginning any fitness program, obtain your medical doctor’s clearance.

Larry Mason is an ACE-certified personal trainer and a brand ambassador for Polar. He has been training and racing with Polar heart rate monitors since 1994. He’s won multiple auto racing championships in many different classes of competition. He competes in sprint triathlons to stay in shape for auto racing. He can be found teaching multiple programs at Fast Lane Racing School.

Copyright © 2021 Larry Mason

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